China's foreign ministry later said it hoped all countries "can earnestly protect lasting peace and tranquility in space". The United States and Russian Federation have declined to make any immediate comment.
Tension flared last month between the nuclear-armed foes after a militant attack in the disputed region of Kashmir. CPM and Trinamool complained to the Election Commission that Modi's address was a violation of the electoral code of conduct.
India's ministry of external affairs said the country had "no intention of entering into an arms race in outer space". The country is now developing a plan to launch a manned space mission in 2022. "But now, we have announced Rs 72,000 per year to the poor and it will fulfilled at any cost, if Congress comes to power", she said.
Defence Research and Development Organisation Chairperson G Satheesh Reddy said that the clearance for the anti-satellite missile project was given two years ago, PTI reported. "We are against the weaponisation of outer space and support worldwide efforts to reinforce the safety and security of space-based assets". "In an extreme scenario, there is even a risk of "collisional cascading" in which one breakup triggers others in a chain reaction".
The target satellite is believed to be Microsat-R, which was put in an unusually low orbit of around 274 km in January.
The United States and the former Soviet Union carried out their first successful anti-satellite missile tests in 1985, and China in 2007.
Responding to the development, Pakistan's Foreign Office said Pakistan believed there was a need to address gaps "in the global space laws with a view to ensuring that no one threatens peaceful activities and applications of space technologies for socio-economic development".
During his speech, PM Modi said that it was a hard target to achieve which was completed successfully within three minutes of launch.
In another interview, Saraswat told ANI that the DRDO had proposed building such an anti-satellite weapon to Shivshankar Menon, who was National Security Advisor during the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance regime.
"Space is being turned into a battlefront, making counter-space capabilities critical".
According to him, having the ASAT capability is significant as India has close to 20 LEO satellites that are vital for various national applications.
A spokeswoman for the US mission in Geneva, which handles disarmament issues, had no immediate comment on the Indian test.
Anti-satellite missiles were first tested by the USA in 1959.
The similarities between ballistic missile defense and ASAT technologies are minimal when the core function of the interceptor is to kinetically destroy an object at exo-atmospheric altitudes, be it on a ballistic trajectory or in low-earth orbit.
Anti-satellite systems have been tested but have never been used in conventional warfare. For example, to bring down spy satellites. While speaking to the reporters in Amethi during the second leg of her three-day Lok Sabha election campaign in Uttar Pradesh, she said, "I've not decided yet but if my party asks me to contest, I will definitely do so".
China has yet to respond to Modi's announcement. "Congratulations to everyone on the success of #MissionShakti", the Prime Minister tweeted.