The Treasury sanctions list included Saud al-Qahtani, a former senior aide to the crown prince; Mohammed al-Otaibi, the Saudi consul general in whose diplomatic mission Khashoggi was killed; and Maher Mutreb, described as a Qahtani "subordinate".
Speaking at a news conference in the Saudi capital, Saud al-Mojeb said that the former deputy head of intelligence, Ahmed al-Asiri, had dispatched a Saudi team to Turkey to negotiate Khashoggi's return to Saudi Arabia.
The Saudi public prosecutor recommended the death penalty for five people who ordered and committed the killing of Jamal Khashoggi.
Following the brutal killing of Saudi Arabian journalist, Jamal Khashoggi, a death penalty has been sought by the Saudi government against five suspects.
The calls for the death penalty come after Mr Khashoggi's fiancee said the "evil criminals and their cowardly political masters" should be held to account for his death.
An English journalist and television presenter, Piers Morgan, tweeted: "So the crown prince who ordered the murder is now going to kill five people who carried out his order?"
The Saudi consul general to Istanbul, Mohammad al-Otaibi, who led early efforts by Saudi Arabia to convince journalists and critics that Khashoggi had left the consulate alive, is also on the list of individuals targeted by the United States sanctions.
In an apparent reference this specialist, al-Shalan said the organizer of the operation - who was not named - called on a specialist to be part of the team to erase evidence if Khashoggi needed to be forcibly returned to Saudi Arabia.
Mojeb's statement on Thursday implicated two higher-level officials in what the prosecutor said was an operation intended either to persuade or force Khashoggi to return to Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia's Foreign Minister says that Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had "absolutely" nothing to do with the killing of Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi.
The whereabouts of Khashoggi's remains are unknown, he said.
"They say this person was killed because he resisted, whereas this murder was premeditated", Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu told reporters.
Turkey says it has recordings related to the killing which it has shared with Western allies.
Cavusoglu said: "I want to say that we did not find some of his explanations to be satisfactory" and that "those who gave the order, the real perpetrators need to be revealed".
Asked about possible global sanctions in response to the case, Jubeir said there was a difference between sanctioning individuals and holding the Saudi government responsible.
The Treasury announcement followed the release of a statement in Riyadh saying 11 unnamed Saudi citizens had been indicted in the crime, which took place on October 2 when Khashoggi visited the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul. "This process can not be closed down in this way".
Under heavy pressure from Turkey, the United States, Britain and France, Riyadh has admitted that Khashoggi was murdered in the consulate and said it would punish those involved.
Last year, in one such hypernationalist social media campaign, Qahtani launched a McCarthyist appeal to Saudis to compile a blacklist containing the names and identities of anyone showing sympathy with Qatar under the Arabic hashtag #TheBlacklist.
He was murdered during an October 2 visit to the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, where he was retrieving documents for his upcoming wedding.