What the new United Nations climate report tells us

Scientists call for $2.4tr shift from coal to renewables

IPCC predicts climate disaster

The report released by the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change (IPCC) has warned that there is a little over a decade left for global warming to be kept at a maximum of 1.5℃, beyond which even a half a degree increase will worsen climactic conditions across the globe and affect human health.

Here is what you need to know.

"Any credible pathway to meeting the 1.5 degree scenario must focus on emissions rather than fuel", Katie Warrick, interim chief executive officer of the WCA, said after reviewing a draft of the report.

And temperatures are expected to rise 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by 2030 if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise at their current rates, according to the report.

The UN-backed study said the impacts of climate change, from droughts to rising seas, will be less extreme if temperature rises are curbed at 1.5C above pre-industrial levels than if they climb to 2C.

"The new report from the IPCC has served as a final warning that we must get our act together - now and quickly", said Sunita Narain, director general of the Centre for Science Environment (CSE) while asking the global communities to build a coalition to support the massive transformation required to achieve the 1.5-degree target.

What does the report say?

Transportation: In order to meet the 1.5C goal, the IPCC envisages a future where people travel less, and that generally consumer preferences shift to more sustainable choices like vehicle sharing and hybrid and electric cars.

The WWF called on the European Union to take urgent action to limit global warming to 1.5ºC, saying in a press release: "Approved by 195 governments, the report underscores the small window of opportunity we have to make immediate, deep and transformational changes - without which the world we know will be irreversibly changed". By the year 2030, global human-caused emissions of Carbon dioxide would need to fall by roughly 45 percent relative to 2010 levels. It also lays out courses of action that could be taken to keep the rise in check.

How can all that be done?

Countries must take "unprecedented" action to slash carbon emissions to zero by 2050 and limit unsafe global warming, a key report has warned.

Renewables would have to supply 70% to 85% of electricity in 2050, there would be a small role for gas power with technology that captured and stored its carbon, while coal would be virtually non-existent.

These are just a few examples taken from a depressingly long list of climate change threats that would be made significantly more risky if the temperature were to rise by 2°C or beyond by the end of the century.

But it is not just electricity: transport, buildings and industry would have to become significantly cleaner. It's therefore important for all the nations to make efforts towards limiting the warming.

The lower target would also reduce species loss and extinction and the impact on terrestrial, freshwater and coastal ecosystems, the report said.

Sea level rises would be 10cm lower with a 1.5C temperature rise compared to 2C by 2100, while there would be worse impacts on coral reefs and the Arctic at higher temperatures.

The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C was approved by the IPCC on Saturday in Incheon, Republic of Korea.

- 20-40% of the global population have experienced more than 1.5C of warming in at least one season.

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