This week has been among the deadliest in Afghanistan so far this year, with more than 150 people killed during suicide bomb attacks in various provinces.
The Kabul mosque death toll has risen to 56, the Afghan Interior Ministry spokesman said. Most of those attacks targeted Afghan police or military facilities. It said the assailant blew himself up as worshippers began their prayers.
Eyewitnesses say women and children were among the dead. The explosion was so strong that it shattered windows on nearby buildings, he said.
As attacks targeting Shiites have increased in Kabul, residents of this area have grown increasingly afraid.
"These people introduced by locals aren't professionals and due to the negligence of one guard, who was standing at mosque's gate, the suicide bomber sneaked inside".
The Taliban have said they carried out the attack.
In central Ghowr province, a suicide bomber attacked worshipers in a Sunni mosque, where a former Taliban commander who was inside was apparently the target, a local official said.
He also confirmed that only one guard of five hired for the mosque was in attendance in the attack time and rest of others were busy doing own private affairs because they received low salaries."I ask the government to give them adequate stipends in order they spend all their time on ensuring local security".
Daesh (also known as ISIS or ISIL) terrorist group later claimed responsibility for the attack.
Funerals were scheduled for Saturday at several cemeteries in western Kabul.