Martin specifically sought Schumer out for the play, and offered her the gig after tracking her down at a house party.
Joining Schumer will be fellow Broadway newcomer Keegan-Michael Key, as well as Laura Benanti and Alan Tudyk.
Meteor Shower takes place on a hot night in Ojai, California, when Corky (Schumer) and her husband, Norm (Tudyk), are having another couple over for dinner.
The Trainwreck actress wrote: '#SteveMartin wrote a hilarious play @MeteorShowerBwy and I get to do it with @keeganmic @laurabenanti @alantudyk'.
Jerry Zaks will be directing "Meteor Shower's" debut on Broadway and previews begin on November 1. The "Inside Amy Schumer" star can be seen in "Meteor Shower" at New York City's Booth Theatre from November 29, where it will run for 12 weeks. And then the next thing is, well, who is everybody?
Amy made the announcement on her Instagram page, writing: "I got to do a Steve Martin play in college and have loved him since I saw him as the waiter in the muppet movie". It's only his second Broadway production after last year's "Bright Star" which he wrote alongside Edie Brickell. The play premiered at San Diego's Old Globe Theatre, and subsequently was produced at the Long Wharf Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut.
Previews begin at the Booth theatre in NY on 1 November.
Schumer is also set to star in the movie I Feel Pretty alongside Emily Ratajkowski, where she'll play a normal woman who falls and wakes up thinking she's the most attractive and capable woman alive.