The resolution was presented by the US, UK and France, who reacted angrily to Russia's decision.
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad called claims that he used deadly sarin gas on his people a "100 percent fabrication" and insisted the U.S. worked "hand-in-glove" with terrorists to carry out the attacks, he said in an interview published Thursday.
Russian Federation has claimed there is "growing evidence" that the gas attack which killed 87 Syrian civilians was staged.
President Vladimir Putin's meeting with US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has not produced any positive shift yet in Russia-US relations, the Kremlin says.
"Definitely, 100 percent for us, it's fabrication..."
"Things went pretty well", he said during a news conference with NATO Secretary-General Jens Soltenberg. "We haven't been provided the details", he added. We gave up our arsenal three years ago.
Syrian Foreign Minister Walid Moallem welcomed global inspectors to visit the base, which Washington claimed had served as a platform for the attack.
"Young children dying, babies dying, fathers holding children in their arms that were dead, dead children", Trump said.
The chemical weapon attack in Syria has led to a standoff between America and Russia, Assad's principal backer, over the future of the Middle East nation.
The US Ambassador to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, called on Moscow to stop protecting Assad and said the United States wants to work with Russian Federation toward a political solution for Syria.
It was the eighth time Russian Federation has protected its ally at the council.
Despite initial hopes in Moscow of better ties with the United States under Mr Trump, the two powers have descended into a furious war of words over the incident and a retaliatory U.S. missile strike against the forces of Moscow's ally Bashar al-Assad last week. "It had kept itself fighting ISIL and supporting rebel groups on the ground", Challands said.
Lavrov met earlier this week with his United States counterpart, Rex Tillerson, in Moscow for talks that also focused on the Syrian conflict.
But Tillerson repeated the administration's new belief that "the reign of the Assad family is coming to an end".
Assad's claims lie in stark contrast to statements from the Trump administration, which definitively ascribed the attack to the Syrian regime.
Syria's government has denied responsibility for the gas attack in a rebel-held area of northern Syria that killed at least 87 people, many of them children.